西藏高原的陆地面积约占中国领土的四分之一    The Tibetan plateau is a quarter of

其中的大部分极度偏远荒无人烟          Much of it is extremely remote and

南部边界贯穿了世界上最高的山脉                       Its southern border runs

through the world's highest mountain range,
望而生畏的喜马拉雅山                       the formidable Himalayas.

有着1000多年悠久历史的的藏传佛教          yet it has a unique character,
依旧保持着她独特的风貌                 shaped by over 1,000 years of Tibetan

这个鲜为人知的散发着古老气息的宗教         This obscure and archaic-looking religion
孕育了这个世界上最开明的文化  has produced one of the most enlightened cultures on

在这里人们与自然界             Here,people have a long tradition of co-existing

和谐相处的悠久传统                       with the creatures and landscape around

促进了对脆弱自然环境的保护   a relationship which has helped to protect their

fragile environment.

初冬                                      It's the beginning of winter,
高高的青藏高原之上                        high up on the Tibetan plateau.
气温会骤降到零下40摄氏度           The temperature will soon drop to minus 40

在这里生命中只剩下唯一的念头——求存Out here,life is reduced to a single imperative

- survival.
对于这只盘羊——世界上最大的羊而言         For the argali,the world's largest sheep,
这就意味着寻找几簇草丛                     it means searching for a few tufts of

从山顶到更低一些的地方                  Descending from the hilltops to lower

盘羊为了安全而团结在一起                   the argali band together for safety.
如果顺利的话 在这里能找到足够的食物     Hopefully, down here,they'll be able to find

enough food
以帮助它们熬过残冬                         to last them through the rest of the


尽管每年的这个时候难以寻觅它们的踪迹                               Though at this

time of year, they can be hard to track down.
相比之下西藏的首府拉萨却熙攘异常  By comparison,Tibet's capital,Lhasa,is a hive of

拉萨是众多朝圣者的聚集地                  Lhasa is a focus for large numbers of

他们每天在市内的庙宇相聚                  who congregate at the city's temples each

西藏供养着超过250万的人口                Tibet is home to over 2.5 million people,
其中大部分都是虔诚的信徒                  most of whom are deeply religious.
尽管西藏的佛教徒倾心于精致复杂的庙宇、雕塑以及画像            Though Tibetan

Buddhist worship centres on elaborate temples,statues and images,
他们的信仰却和西藏的野生环境密切地交织在一起                          its beliefs

are intimately linked with the wild landscapes of Tibet.
这种关系起源于                 The starting point for that relationship is the

mountain range
蜿蜒在西藏南部边界的山脉                   that runs along Tibet's southern border.
喜马拉雅山脉的长度超过了3000千米          Over 3,000 kilometres long,
是中国真正意义上的长城                     the Himalayas are China's real Great

有上百个山峰的海拔超过了7000米 其中十三个的海拔超过了8000米                         

       With hundreds of peaks over 7,000 metres and 13 peaks
是地球上最高的山峰         higher than 8,000 metres,they are the highest mountains

on Earth.
西藏地区有3万5千个以上的冰川           The Tibetan region contains over 35,000

覆盖了超过10万平方千米的土地            that cover over 100,000 square kilometres.
组成了除去极地之外的最大的冰区    They comprise the largest area of ice outside the

polar regions,
接近世界冰区总面积的六分之一             and nearly a sixth of the world's total.
冰川是这个地区大部分水流的源头     These glaciers are the source of most of the

water in the region.



晚春时节 寒冷的湖水吸引了很多繁衍的鸟儿                           In late spring,the

chilly lake waters are a magnet for breeding birds.
这只冠毛 给它同伴衔来了杂草以此示爱                           The crested grebe woos

his mate with offerings of weed for her nest.
最终爱巢为它们圆房做好了准备             Finally the honeymoon suite is ready for

除了 这里还有世界上飞的最高的鸟     The grebes are joined by the highest flying

birds in the world.
斑头鹤在喜马拉雅山的南面过冬             Having spent the winter south of the

每年春天都要冒险飞越巅峰       bar-headed geese make the hazardous mountain crossing

each spring
到高原的湖泊繁衍生息                     to breed on the plateau's lakes.
为了安全它们在一起筑巢                   The geese nest together for safety.
但如此多的小鸟同时孵出也就意味着找到亲生父母是一个很棘手的问题But so many chicks

hatching at the same time means that it can be tricky finding your parents.
幸运的是一旦到了水里                     Fortunately,once down at the water's edge,
就能够找到足够的食物                     there's enough food for all of them.
凭借着高山冰川                           Fed by the mountain glaciers,
青藏高原甚至形成了自己的内陆湖           the Tibetan plateau even has its own inland

青海湖                                   This is Qinghai Lake,
中国最大的内陆湖                         China's largest.
经过百万年的蒸发 矿物质浓缩了在湖中                        Millions of years of

evaporation have concentrated the minerals in the lake,
使水变得咸了                             turning the water salty.
湖中丰富的鱼资源吸引了成千上万的鸬鹚     Rich in fish,its waters attract thousands

of cormorants.

其间的水也使得人类的生命得以延续     Their life-giving waters are also important to

西藏的宗教是佛教与曾经在此地广为流传的                             Tibetan religion

is a unique mix of Buddhism and much older
古老萨满教的独特的混合体  Shamanic beliefs that were once widespread throughout the

这种混合信仰构成了他们与自然独特关系的基础               This hybrid religion forms

the basis of an extraordinary relationship with nature.
在萨满教义中这片土地被赋予了魔力 In Shamanic belief,the land is imbued with magical

使之能够帮助与精神世界进行交流          which aid communication with the spirit

在这里动物的头骨被装饰起来 岩石也刻上了神圣的曼特拉(传统的颂歌)                 Here

animal skulls are decorated,and rocks are carved with sacred mantras,
人们认为那些音节拥有精神的力量    groups of syllables that are considered to have

spiritual power.
人们相信诵读这些曼特拉能够产生魔音                          The reciting of the

mantras is believed to create a magical sound
在宇宙中回响                               that reverberates through the universe.
大地被分别代表了金木水火土五种元素的  The landscape is decorated with multi-coloured

flags which
多彩的经幡装饰着              represent the five elements - fire,wood,earth,water

and iron.
经幡上印着祷文用以净化空气 安抚神灵                     The flags are printed with

prayers to purify the air and pacify the gods,
而风会把这些祈祷带向天堂                   and the wind blows the prayers to heaven.

而旧的经幡很是珍贵 那些最接近番杆顶部的                              The old flags

are treasured. Those nearest the top of the pole
经幡更是象征着吉祥如意 所以经幡的争夺可能会很激烈                            are the

most auspicious,so competition for these can get fierce!
番杆顶部的金顶        The golden dome,which is mounted right at the top of the

prayer pole,
是所有物体当中最神圣的                    is the most sacred object of all.
至少 一旦它被降下来之后是这样。          Or it will be,once it's retrieved.
古老的萨满教把魔法的力量归功于这片土地.                The old Shamanic beliefs of

Tibet ascribed magical powers to the landscape.
但这里还有的更多可以感知的力量       But there's a far more tangible source of power

却和魔法没有一丁点关系                   which owes nothing at all to magic.

亚洲和印度板块之间的缓慢运动            The slow-motion crash between Asia and India
已经持续了3千万年之久。                 has been going on for 30 million years.
喜马拉雅山脉就是这两个大陆板块撞击后的结果            The Himalayas are the crumple

-zone created by these two colliding landmasses,
它是一个山峦和山谷的迷宫                a bewildering maze of mountains and valleys,
也是各种难以捉摸的野生动物的家园        home to elusive wild creatures.
在这个多岩的恶劣环境中                  In this rugged and unforgiving terrain,
散落着各种碎石和冰冷的河流              littered with fractured rock and ice cold

极微小的失误也可能导致致命的后果 the slightest miscalculation may have fatal

雪豹是世界上居住的海拔最高的猫科动物The snow leopard is the world's highest-living

big cat.
但这里还有一种更小的食肉动物 它居住在海拔更高的地方                               

But there's another,smaller predator that ranges even higher,
几乎是在世界之巅                        almost to the roof of the world.
在令人目眩的海拔8848米的高度看         At a mind-numbing 8,848 metres high,
珠穆朗玛峰是地球上最危险的地方之一    Everest is one of the most hostile places for

life on Earth.
数百人在试图征服它的尝试中死于非命    Hundreds of people have died trying to conquer

但当攀登者们第一次完成登山之路的四分之三的之时                     But when climbers

first reached the ice fields three quarters of the way
有种生物早已在这方面打败了他们。 up the mountain,something had already beaten them

to it.
这种跳蜘蛛是地球上海拔最高的永久居住民                         This jumping spider

is the highest permanent resident on the planet.
在珠穆朗玛峰的冰川之中                 Totally at home amongst the glaciers of

它在斜坡上四处搜索靠风飞行的猎物 比如弹尾虫。                              it scours

the slopes for wind-borne prey such as springtails.
中国人把这种小而凶猛的猎食者成为“飞虎”  Chinese call this fierce little hunter the

"fly tiger".
跳蜘蛛在世界各地都有分布                Jumping spiders are found all over the

他们的八对眼睛中有一对很大             Their eight eyes include an oversized central

像双筒望远镜一样四处搜寻潜在的目标  which act like powerful binoculars to spot

potential victims.
他们利用水压使腿像活塞一样     They use hydraulic pressure to work their legs like

可以弹跳到30倍于他们体长的高度        catapulting up to 30 times their own body

这是在山地中行走的理想方法             The ideal way to get around in rocky terrain.
但像其他的登山者一样 他们也总是先确认哪里是“安全线”                            But

like all mountaineers,they always secure a safety line first.
一个弹尾虫正盯着碎石屑                 A springtail grazes on detritus,对这个耍杂技

般的掠夺者的潜行跟踪浑然不觉                             unaware that it's being

stalked by such an acrobatic predator.
藏民们把珠穆朗玛峰称为“Qomolangma(珠穆朗玛)” The Tibetans call Everest

意为“大地之母”                         meaning "mother of the world".
这象征着他们对山的热爱 而不管山看起来多么的冷酷无情                  It's a mark of

their affection for the mountain,however brutal it may appear.
从高山一直到广阔的平原都充满危险  Venture further from the mountains and out onto

the open plateau,
在这里活下去并不容易                   and life doesn't appear to get any easier.
风在大地上急速穿过                     High winds scour the landscape
气温也可以从酷热难当骤降到冰冷入骨  and temperaturescan drop from baking to freezing

in moments.
这里是羌塘或叫北部草原                 This is the Chang Tang or Northern Grassland.
它远离人烟 被称为“世界第三极”           It's so remote that it's been called the

Third Pole.
这里海拔超过5000米                     It's about 5,000 metres above sea level,
远远超出了人们会有高原反应的高度way above the point at which altitude sickness

starts to affect humans.
在这个高度下 大部分人都要不停地喘气     At this height,most people are gasping for

但缺少氧气却对这种生物没多大影响   But lack of oxygen hasn't cramped this creature's

长角羚或叫藏羚羊已经到了冬季的发情期    Chiru,or Tibetan antelope,have arrived for

the winter rut.
在这样耗能的稀薄空气当中 雄性还必须经常地围着成群的雌性跑                 In the

energy-sapping thin air,the males must try to control groups of females
以使她们在自己的控制之下。           by constantly rounding them up and corralling

但是藏羚羊也有优势                     But the chiru have an advantage.
他们的红血球数量是我们的两倍           Their red blood cell count is twice as high

as ours,
即使在如此高的纬度 也足以为他们的      sufficient to supply their muscles with

肌肉输送氧气                           even at this extreme altitude.
然而 想要控制住这么一大群家眷并不容易  Nevertheless,it's hard work keeping his harem

in check,
甚至有时雄性的生活会更加艰难。         and the male's life is about to get even

另一只雄性垂涎于它的家眷们             Another male is gearing up to steal his

除非逼不得已雄性一般不会冒险用它们剑一样锋利的角搏斗。With their rapier-like

horns,the males won't risk fighting unless they really have to.
但如果双方都不退让 大战就不可避免。     But if neither backs down,conflict is

有时甚至不死不休                        Some of these fights end in death.
在雄性抵抗的时候 雌性就在一旁看着。     While the males fence,the females look on.
虚弱受伤的失败者很容易成为在荒原上游弋的                         Injured and

weakened by the battle,the loser will be an easy target
食肉动物和食腐动物的目标       for the predators and scavengers that patrol the

在这里生存不容许有任何失误              Out here there's little room for mistakes.
从高空俯视着广袤无垠的高原              With a clear view of the endless plateau

秃鹫们不会放过任何一个机会              vultures are quick to spot any opportunity.
一头死牦牛吸引了一群秃鹫前来            A dead yak has drawn a crowd.
秃鹫的就餐礼仪并不好                    Vultures aren't famous for their table

但在这里秃鹫们却表现的很好 因为广阔的西藏荒原有足够多的大型生物       The vultures

do well here,as the vast Tibetan wilderness is home to many large creatures.
居住在西藏高原偏远角落的野牦牛群居的数量甚至可能达到200只                     Living

in herds of up to 200 in the remoter corners of the Tibetan plateau,
他们走过遥远的距离来到高山上的冻土地带寻觅食物                              wild

yaks travel large distances,grazing on the alpine tundra.
依靠着山口和河流 牦牛在这里强大而安全  Strong and secure over mountain passes and

它们于这个海拔的环境是如此地连为一体     The yak is in its element at altitude

夏季可以看见有的人贴在草地上         In summer,people can be seen scouring the

全神贯注地四处搜索                     bent over in deep concentration.
这是世界上最奇特的收割方式了            This is the world's weirdest harvest.

  Tibetans first investigated this strange root-like organism,
奇怪的根状生物体                        known locally as "yartsa gunbu",
原因就在于看到了牦牛们在吃完它之后精力充沛                           when their yaks

appeared to have more energy after grazing on it.
关于它的神奇的特性的传言逐渐传播开来    Rumours of its amazing properties gradually

到了今天 冬虫夏草已经进入了地下黑市                    and today the yartsa gunbu is

a passport into a shady,underground world.
有时一天一人就可以挖掘40个左右           It's possible to dig up 40 of them in a

而这些收入则可能占采集者年收入的一半                    the proceeds from which may

provide half the collector's annual income.
冬虫夏草被用作传统药物已经上千年                    Yartsa gunbu has been used as a

traditional remedy for thousands of years,
但仅限于非常富有的人群                    though only by the very wealthy.
它被用来交换茶叶和丝绸                    It has been bartered for tea and silk,
可以换回超过本身四倍重量的银子       and is worth more than four times its weight in

这项贸易是如此的暴利使得它的交易地点和信息都被谨慎地保护起来                     So

lucrative is this trade,that sites and information are jealously guarded.
在附近的集市上冬虫夏草被清理干净       At the nearby market,the yartsa gunbu are

这使得它的本来面目显露了出来              and their true nature becomes clear.
冬虫夏草被翻译为“冬天的虫子夏天的草”  The yartsa gunbu translates as "summer

grass,winter worm".
冬虫是一种毛虫                            The winter worm is a caterpillar.
它以草根为食                              It eats roots of grasses
为自己变身成蛾做准备。                  in preparation for its transformation into a

但有些冬虫却从没有机会变成蛾            But some winter worms never make it as

而在夏季一个奇怪的植物                  Instead,a strange growth erupts from their

在冬虫的体内生长发育直至破土而出        appearing above ground in summer.
这就是“夏草”                            This is the "summer grass",
一种被称为虫草的真菌 是它的孢子侵入了毛虫体内                      a fungus called

Cordyceps,whose spores have infected the caterpillar,
并将毛虫的身体作为它们的宿主            using its body as their host.
现代科学实验证明含有冬虫夏草的物质可以                            Modern scientific

tests have shown that substances contained
降低血压并能使呼吸更顺畅   in Cordyceps lower blood pressure and make it easier to

所以近些年来收获这种自然资源           So in recent years,harvesting this natural

已经成为有巨大利益的生意                has grown into a huge and profitable

Yarsa gunbu 不仅在拉萨的百货公司里畅销Yartsa gunbu sells for big money in the top

department stores of Lhasa, and there is a growing market outside of Tibet.
尽管西藏日新月异地发展                  Although Tibet is modernising fast,
它的精神文化依旧根深蒂固                it retains a deeply spiritual culture.
即使在今天 神秘西藏大峡谷的回响仍然在呼唤着祈祷的人们           Even today,Tibetan

valleys resound to distinctive and extraordinary calls to prayer.
西藏的号角或许是世界上最笨重的乐器   The Tibetan horn may be the world's most

unwieldy instrument,
但是它的音色独特                        but its sound is unique.
每天早晨 喇嘛们聚集在一起练习吹奏       Every morning,the nuns assemble for

开始空气很凉 但她们很快就暖和起来。     The air is chilly,but they soon warm up.
喇嘛们是组成社会的一部分       Monks and nuns comprise a substantial portion of

他们自控也独立                          Largely self-contained and isolated.
热情                                    CHANTING
修道院的深处是推动藏文化的精神动力         Deep within the monastery is the

spiritual engine that drives much of Tibetan culture.
佛教徒相信生命轮回                      Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of

他们相信人们今生的所作所为能影响来生   in which the actions of this life will impact

on the next.
佛教的目标就是通过达到一种“悟”的自由的境界                           The goal of

Buddhism is to escape from this earthly cycle of pain
来摆脱俗世的灾难和痛苦    and suffering by achieving a state of freedom called

这种教化的领路人或精神上的老师叫做喇嘛                               The enlightened

guides,or spiritual teachers,are called lamas.
摆脱生死轮回追求教化的想法          The possibility of escaping the cycle of life

and death
驱使着人们一心向善   and the promise of enlightenment encourages people to perform

activities that benefit all beings.
由于相信万物都有灵魂 所以他们认为环境生物和 This belief assigns as much importance

to the environment and its creatures as it does to humans,
人类都是平等的                       since every living creature is believed to have

a soul.
一千多年以来 在西藏这偏僻的地方      In the remote lands of Tibet, for over 1,000

这个观念为野生动植物带来了       this concept has been translated into practical

benefits for wildlife,
实实在在的好处                        and it starts literally on their doorstep.
僧庙的佛教徒有一些神圣的地方          Buddhist monasteries have sacred sites,
在那里猎杀动物是犯忌讳的  areas where taboos are placed on the hunting and killing

of animals.
一些动物已经被驯服 喇嘛们都可以用手喂它们               Some creatures have become

so tame that the nuns are able to hand-feed them,
比如西藏野鸡                           Iike these Tibetan-eared pheasants.
由于喇嘛伸出援手 那些稀有的鸟们可以活过最寒冷的冬天。         Thanks to hand-outs

from the nuns,these rare birds can survive the worst of the winter.

雷声隆隆                             THUNDER RUM.BLE
在草原微妙的生态系统中有一种小生物生活在草原微妙的生态链的底端Out on the plateau

there's a small creature that's at the root of much of the grasslands' delicate

尽管夏天有暴风雪 鼠兔一种家兔和野兔的同类                       Despite summer

snowstorms,the pika,a relative of rabbits and hares,
仍然在不停地吃草并储存起来           is perpetually eating and gathering grass,
还给家人刨洞                         and digging burrows for its family.
鼠兔不停地挖洞使空气进入土壤         The pika's constant excavations aerate the

帮助植物生长得更好                   which helps the plants to grow.
在短暂的夏天耐寒的草铺满了大地 野花也装饰了大地。    In the short summer,the

landscape is carpeted with hardy grasses and decorated with endemic flowers.
在这样原始的环境下                   In such a frugal environment,
鼠兔的活动有益于保持食物链的完整     the pika's farming helps to kickstart the food

鼠兔肉很可口但是鼠兔数量太少了       But the pika itself is a very tasty morsel.
它现在的数量勉强能够维持        Its presence has enabled an uneasy relationship to

高原上的两大肉食动物...          between two of the plateau's most opportunistic

...狐狸和熊                          ..the fox and the bear.
西藏的棕熊灰熊的一种近亲           The Tibetan brown bear,a close relative of the

试图把鼠兔从洞里挖出来             tries to dig the pikas out of their burrows.
即使棕熊很难从冻得坚硬的土地里挖出鼠兔来                          Even hard-frozen

soil presents little obstacle to a determined bear.
狡猾的藏狐可绝不放过任何可能的机会     The wily Tibetan fox is quick to spot any

要说真正聪明的狡猾的狐狸绝对可以胜任    True to form,the crafty fox claims the

由于动物难以捕获并且有世代相传的禁止猎杀的传统                 A combination of

inaccessibility,and ancient traditions which forbid hunting,
这使得即使在今天                     means that in some parts of the plateau,
在高原的一些地方 野生动物都相对没有被打扰                            wild animals

have remained relatively undisturbed,even today.
但是在那些汽车可以到达的地方  But in those areas which are within reach of motor

那些传统的保护已经渐渐被打破         these historical safeguards have been

这种变化从藏羚羊的身上得到了体现     This change is illustrated in the fortunes of

the chiru.
一个世纪以来 上百万的藏羚羊在高原上迁徙  A century ago,millions migrated across the

不幸的是被称为“沙图什”或者       Unfortunately for the chiru,its fur,known as

“羊毛之王”的藏羚羊的毛皮被认为有很高的价值        or "king of wools",is highly

近几十年以来 偷猎者冒险深入荒原     In recent decades,poachers have been able to

捕杀了成千上万头藏羚羊               deep into the wilderness,killing thousands of

但是情况正在逐步好转                     However,the situation is improving.
反偷猎法已经生效 所以每年夏天    Anti-poaching laws are now actively enforced so

every summer,
母藏羚羊可以相对安全地带领羊群到繁衍的地方                           female chiru

can head to the birthing grounds in relative safety.
在高原上 新出生的藏羚羊容易受到肉食动物的攻击                           Out on the

plateau,new-born chiru are vulnerable to predators,
所以母藏羚羊必须把他们藏起来保护它们  so the mothers must try to hide and protect

藏羚羊最近遇到的最大的问题就是青藏铁路的修建                    The most recent

problem faced by the chiru is the new Tibet-Qinghai
正好阻断了它们经常迁徙的路  railway,which cuts right through their traditional

migration routes.
青藏铁路蜿蜒2000多公里 经过世界上最高的地带                          Running nearly

2,000 kilometres through some of the highest
它的修建是震惊世界的壮举     terrain on Earth,the railway is an astonishing

technical feat.
评论它对野生动物的影响还为时过早        It's too early to see its effect on the

但工程师们已经设计了高架桥来让   but the engineers have made efforts to incorporate

野生动物能安全地穿过铁路                where wildlife can cross the line in safety.
由于现代世界对西藏与日俱增的影响   As the modern world increasingly impacts on

西藏的传统文化正面临影响                its traditions could be in danger of being

但是正是由于这个地方的偏僻            But thanks to the sheer scale of this remote

这里才有许多荒原至今仍保留着未被人类开垦的自然状态                     there are

still many wild places that have so far remained largely intact.
最少被探索的地域在西藏偏远的东南部                            The least explored

area of all is found in Tibet's far south east.
西藏最长的雅鲁藏布江                    Here the Yarlung River,Tibet's longest,
在喜马拉雅山脉中留下了深深的印痕        has carved through the Himalayas,
                                   allowing monsoon clouds from India to pass

这里是西藏最神秘的角落                  This is Tibet's most secret corner.
根据传说雅鲁藏布江大峡谷                According to legend,the Yarlung gorge
在十八世纪奇迹般地消失了           was rendered magically invisible in the eighth

只有那些具有高尚品德和聪明才智的人才能看到     and can only be seen by those who

have attained sufficient spiritual knowledge and wisdom.
这个神秘的地方离最近的路有两天的路程     At two days' walk from the nearest road,
直到20世纪90年代才被世人发现                            this hidden region wasn't

explored by outsiders until the 1990s.
多亏了季风的帮助                         Thanks to the annual monsoon,
才使这个地方苍翠繁茂                     the whole landscape is covered in lush

峡谷之大让人心惊胆战                     The scale of the gorge is breathtaking.
雅鲁藏布江从山峦间穿过 形成了世界最深的峡谷                    As the Yarlung River

cuts through the mountains,it's created the world's
比美国大峡谷深三倍多         deepest gorge,three times deeper than America's Grand

这个广袤神秘的地方为研究西藏 对其他地方的重要性提供了极其重要的线索This vast and

mysterious place provides a vital clue to Tibet's importance for the rest of the

多亏了高原的存在                  The monsoon which sustains this lush and fertile

才有了为绿色富饶峡谷带来活力的季风       owes its very existence to the Tibetan

高原像一个巨大的加热板 春夏温暖   Like a giant hotplate,the plateau heats up in the

spring and summer.
气压的变化引来了南面印度洋的温热潮湿的空气The change in air pressure draws in warm

moist air from the Indian Ocean in the south.
幸亏这样从印度到缅甸的十亿多人        Thanks to this, over a billion people from

India to Burma
都得益于季风带来的季风雨        benefit from the monsoon rain that this wind brings

with it.
西藏就是保持整个次大陆肥沃的动力  Tibet is the engine that drives th, e fertility of a

whole subcontinent.
但是西藏在地区生态方面扮演着更重要的角色           &am, p;n, bsp;                But Tibet has an

even greater role in the ecology of the region.
这个角色的线索可以追溯到古藏文化的传说当中      Clues to this function are found in

a legend that pre-dates even the ancient Tibetan culture
而这个传说至今还吸引着来自全世界的朝圣者   and which still draws pilgrims from all

over the world.
世界上一些的宗教相信一座神话中的山是伊甸园般的存在Several world religions believe in

a mythical mountain that's equivalent to the Garden of Eden.
它的顶部有四个面 排成罗盘的四个方向    Its peak has four faces,aligned to the points

of the compass,
从它的顶部有四条河流向世界的的四方             and from its summit four rivers are

said to flow to the four quarters of the world.
由于这里的生命之泉                         Thanks to its life-giving waters,
这座山被称为“世界屋脊”               this mountain is known as the "axis of the

world. "
在西藏最偏僻的区域之一 有一个地方应验了这个传说      In one of the remotest areas of

Tibet,there's a place where this legend takes physical form.
这就是伽拉萨山                              That place is Mount Kailash.
机缘巧合的是伽拉萨山同       By an uncanny coincidence,Mount Kailash perfectly

matches the legend
世界屋脊神话中的描述非常吻合                of the mythical axis of the world.
它的四个面大体向罗盘的四个方向         Its four faces are roughly aligned to the

还有四条主河从丘陵地带奔流                  and four major rivers flow from its

他们是亚洲最重要的四条河             These are some of the most significant rivers

in Asia.
雅鲁藏布江、形成了印度的布拉马普特拉河、The Yarlung,which becomes India's

印度河和流经巴基斯坦的萨特累季河            the Indus and Sutlej,which flow to

以及恒河的主要支流——卡那丽河             and the Karnali,a major feeder for the

由于连接着神话般的高山              Thanks to its connection with the mythical

卡伊拉什山令人感到神圣而从未被攀登过   Kailash is so sacred that it has never been

它是朝圣者在西藏最重要的朝圣点              It's Tibet's most important pilgrimage

对于西藏人来说 朝圣之旅是从无知到被教化的过程                       For

Tibetans,pilgrimage is a journey from ignorance to enlightenment.
环行圣山的朝圣者认为这样做可以消除一生的罪孽                          A pilgrimage

around the sacred mountain is believed to wipe out
获得一个更好的来生            the sins of a lifetime,increasing the chance of a

better rebirth.
大多数朝圣者把朝圣的时间安排在最重要的藏历节日之时            Most pilgrims time

their visit for the most important festival in the Tibetan calendar.
一千多年以来 他们聚集在卡伊拉什山脚  For over 1,000 years they have gathered at the

foot of Kailash
来庆祝萨嘎达瓦节 感谢佛陀的教化    for the Saga Dawa festival to celebrate Buddha's

当新装饰的圣坛上升起25米高的旗子时                            The festival climaxes

with the raising of the newly dressed altar,
节日达到了高潮                               a 25-metre flagpole.
藏族僧侣的音乐、祷文和祝福    The full entourage of Tibetan monks make the most of

the occasion,
贯穿了节日的始终                             with music,prayers,and blessings.
他们准备了上百条新的祷告的旗子等着放到旗杆上面                           Hundreds of

fresh prayer flags are prepared and added to the pole.
大喇嘛神圣的哈达给活动画上了句号                         The head lama's sacred

scarf adds the final touch to the proceedings.
但是卡伊拉什山的重要意义并不仅限于佛教徒                     But the significance of

Mount Kailash isn't confined to Buddhists alone.
有其他信仰的人也都冒险来到这个遥远的地方      Other faiths venture to this remote

许多人是从比喜马拉雅山还远的地方过来的        many from far beyond the Himalayas.
像是想要抢佛教徒的风头似的 印度教徒来了                                  Threatening

to upstage the Buddhists,the Hindus arrive,
把他们自己的色彩和音乐加入其中               adding their own mix of colour and

在适当地表达一下敬意之后                     When suitable respect has been paid,
是时候竖立新装饰的旗杆了           it's time for the newly dressed prayer pole to be

旗杆必须笔直                                 The pole must end up straight
否则就是对西藏坏的征兆                       or it will be a bad omen for Tibet.
旗杆终于弄好了 新的祷文也可以被风送到天堂了                 At last the pole stands

true and the new prayers can be blown to the heavens.
在这一点上 西藏山水的力量和许多文化的信仰汇集到了一起   Around this point,the power

of the Tibetan landscape and the beliefs of many cultures converge.
更多祷文写在了叫做“风马旗”的纸上 被吹到了空中   More prayers, written on pieces of

paper called "wind horses",are thrown into the air and flutter
向上直到卡伊拉什顶峰 具有不同信仰的人都认为那里居住他们的神  upwards towards the

peak of Kailash,where the gods of the different faiths are believed to reside.
在世界屋脊这里有世所罕见的和谐    Here at the axis of the world,is a rare vision of

对一些人来说 这里只有一个重要的终极目标                                       For a

few,there is one final but essential task to perform.
佛教徒相信有轮回 认为在卡伊拉什山      Buddhists believe in the concept of

rebirth,and at Kailash
从今生到来世的路上                          the journey from one life to the next
都有古代神秘仪式的印迹                   is marked with an ancient but outlandish

西藏人认为没有必要保存或埋葬他们的尸体                     Tibetans believe there's

no need to keep or bury the bodies of their dead,
因为死亡的人已经在其他地方获得了新生                         since a departed life

will already have kindled a new one elsewhere.
藏语中的埋葬的意思是“施舍喂鸟”  The word for burial in Tibetan means "giving

offerings to the birds",
这种行为和他们怜悯一切生灵的观念是一致                  an act of generosity in line

with the concept of compassion for all beings.
佛教徒相信行善有益于他们的教化By doing good deeds,Buddhists believe that they can

contribute to the process of enlightenment.
所以在卡伊拉什天葬能获得更好的未来    So a sky burial at Kailash contributes to a

brighter future.
或许世界屋脊由关于山的神话和河流构成       There may be legends of mythical

mountains and rivers that form the "axis of the world".
但是青藏高原本身 还有它的山峦、冰川、河流                      But the Tibetan

plateau itself,with its mountains,glaciers,and rivers,
作为季风的推动者                          and as the engine that drives the monsoon,
是名副其实的世界屋脊                  lays fair claim to being the real axis of the

除了是印度和巴基斯坦的源头          Apart from feeding the rivers of India and

西藏的冰川还是更多主要河流的源头 Tibet's glaciers are the source of even more great

越南的湄公河、缅甸的怒江雅鲁藏布江和黄河                      Vietnam's

Mekong,Burma's Salween and the Yangtze and the Yellow,
都流经中国                                both of which flow into China.
每年充足的水从青藏高原流出       Each year,enough water flows from the Tibetan

注入了黄河--中华文明的母亲河   to fill the entire Yellow River,the mother river of

Chinese civilisation.
现如今仅中国就有3亿人依靠     Today in China alone,300 million people depend on

从青藏高原的流下的水生活                  from the Tibetan plateau.
由于对亚洲气候和水资源体系的深远影响   With its profound effect on Asia's weather

and water systems,
               the Tibetan plateau helps to sustain almost half the

world's population.
至少在现在就是这样                        For the moment,at least.
在接近珠穆朗玛峰峰顶的地方                Close to the summit of Mount Everest,
冰层曾经覆盖过大部分的地域                a forest of ice once covered much of the

但是现在由于气候的变化                    But now,thanks to climate change,
大部分冰层消失了                          much of it has gone.
在接下来的30年里                         Within the next 30 years
预计西藏80%的冰川将会消失   it's predicted that 80% of the Tibetan glaciers could

从许多方面来说                            In many ways,
西藏脆弱的环境是世界生态的晴雨表 Tibet's fragile environment is the barometer of our

它今天发生了什么                          What happens to it today,
迟早会影响到所有人                        in time,will affect us all.




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